English Name: Nepalese Pepper
Scientific Name: Zanthoxylum armatum DC.
Nepali Name: Timur टिमुर
Spiny shrub or small tree about 3 m high. Petiole odor. Leaves alternate, slightly winged, with stipular spine at the base, odd pinnate, leaflets three to nine with red colored thrown. Flowers small, whitish in loose inflorescence. Fruit spherical, red when matured, splitting into two valves, 3 to 4 mm in fresh, odor.
Timur is distributed from 1000 to 2500 m in Hilly regions throughout east to west Nepal in natural conditions and edge of cultivated land. It is abundant in hilly areas of Mid-western Nepal.
The main harvesting time of Timur is October to December.
Fruits are small bean shaped, black or brown colored essential oil scented, with biting and numbing taste. Majority fruits are broken into two pieces but unseparated. Along with fruit, sometimes dark brown colored seed is also present. Demand of fruit and essential oil extracted from fruit is growing day by day.
Government of Nepal has prioritized it for Cultivation and Conservation.
In Nepal, Timur is considered as good appetizer. Its regular use improves the voice quality. Uses of bark, fruits and seeds are considered to be carminative, stomachic and anthelmintic.
Locally Timur used as spices. The fruit contains Zanthoxylum oil which is used for different purposes.
Fruits are used for headache, toothache in Ayurvedic Medicinal System. It is also used as spice and pesticide. Essential oil extracted from fruit is used for cosmetic materials, food materials and medicinal purposes.
Being rich in linalool, methyl cinnamate and cineole, it is used in the fragrance and flavor industry.
Medicinal and aromatherapy use: Anti-infectious, sedative, arthritis, cholera, toothache.
Supplied country: Middle East, Gulf, Asia, Asia Pacific, USA, EU, Scandinavian, Canada, China, India